V Edition (2015)

 

ORGANIZING COMMITTEE

Head of the Conference: Żaneta Matuszek

Krzysztof Bielski

Daniel Borek

Joanna Borowska

Marta Butrym

Paulina Dąbrowska

Martyna Gajos

Klaudia Jączyńska

Aleksandra Klemba

Kacper Kondrakiewicz

Mateusz Kostecki

Anna Kraus

Marta Królak

Shure Kucman

Piotr Lipowiecki

Kacper Łukasiewicz

Anna Malinowska

Jan Mąka

Katarzyna Mucha

Sylwia Purchla – Szepioła

Anna Siennicka

Maria Tomaszewska

Maciej Winiarski

Maja Wójcik

Oliwia Zaborowska

under supervision of

Piotr Borsuk, PhD, Deputy Dean for Studies and Students Affairs of Faculty of Biology

Magdalena Markowska, PhD, Department of Animal Physiology, Faculty of Biology,

University of Warsaw; Scientific tutor of Neurobiology Student’s Scientific Club, Warsaw, Poland

Jan Jabłonka, PhD, Department of Animal Physiology, Faculty of Biology, University of Warsaw;

Scientific tutor of Neurobiology Student’s Scientific Club, Warsaw, Poland

SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE:

Prof. Andrzej Twardowski, Head of College of inter-Faculty Individual Studies in mathematics and Natural Science, University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland

Prof. Andrzej Wysmołek, Institute of Experimental Physics, Section of Solid State Physics, University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland

Piotr Borsuk, PhD, Deputy Dean for Studies and Students Affairs of Faculty of Biology, Warsaw, Poland

Prof. Stefan Kasicki, Laboratory of Limbic System, Department of Neurophysiology, Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology PAS, Warsaw, Poland; Head of Marceli Nencki Foundation for Support of Biological Sciences

Prof. Leszek Kaczmarek Laboratory of Neurobiology, Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology PAS, Warsaw, Poland;

Prof. Piotr Durka, Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland

Prof. Andrzej Wróbel, Laboratory of Visual System, Department of Neurophysiology, Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology PAS, Warsaw, Poland

Artur Czupryn, PhD, Department of Molecular and Cellular Neurobiology, Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology PAS, Warsaw, Poland

Jan Jabłonka, PhD, Department of Animal Physiology ,Faculty of Biology, University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland; University of Warsaw; Scientific tutor of Neurobiology Student’s Scientific Club, Warsaw, Poland

Magdalena Markowska, PhD, Department of Animal Physiology, Faculty of Biology, University of Warsaw; Scientific tutor of Neurobiology Student’s Scientific Club, Warsaw, Poland

Prof. Daniel Wójcik, Laboratory of Neuroinformatics, Department of Neurophysiology, Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology PAS, Warsaw, Poland 

Marek Wypych, PhD, Laboratory of Brain Imaging, the Neurobiology Centre, Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology PAS, Warsaw, Poland

Paweł Boguszewski, PhD, Laboratory of Limbic System, Department of Neurophysiology, Nencki Institut of Experimental Biology PAS, Warsaw, Poland

Prof. Leonora Bużańska, Head of Stem Cell Bioengineering Laboratory, NeuroRepair Department, Mossakowski Medical Research Centre, Warsaw, Poland

Dorota Dziewulska, PhD, Department of Neurology, Laboratory of neuropathology, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland

Ksenia Meyza, PhD, Department of Neurophysiology, Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology PAS, Warsaw, Poland

Przemysław Tomalski, PhD, Neurocognitive Development Lab, Faculty of Psychology, University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland

Ewelina Knapska, PhD, Laboratory of Emotions Neurobiology, Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology PAS, Warsaw, Poland

Jarosław Michałowski, PhD,

Faculty of Psychology, University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland

 

PATRONAGES

HONORARY PATRONAGES

University of Warsaw

Faculty of Biology, University of Warsaw

Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw

Faculty of Psychology, University of Warsaw

College of Inter-Faculty Individual Studies in Mathematics

and Natural Sciences, University of Warsaw

Marceli Nencki Foundation for Supporting Biological Sciences

SPONSORS

University of Warsaw

Faculty of Biology, University of Warsaw

Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw

Faculty of Psychology, University of Warsaw

College of Inter-Faculty Individual Studies in Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of

Warsaw

Universitatis Varsoviensis Foundation

University of Warsaw Foundation

AnimaLab

Elmico medical

Polskie Wydawnictwo Naukowe – PWN

 

PATRONAGES

Charaktery. Magazyn psychologiczny

e-Biotechnologia.pl

Laboratoria.net

AVANT. Trends in Interdisciplinary Studies

Projekt Nauka. Fundacja na rzecz promocji nauki polskiej

IFMSA – Poland. Międzynarodowe Stowarzyszenie Studentów Medycyny

GEOMYS. Usługi dla Nauki

magazyntuiteraz.pl

psychopraca.net

Polish Copernicus Society of Naturalists

BioCEN – Centre for Innovative Bioscience Education

Radio Kampus

deMedici.pl

dlastudenta.pl

Biotechnologia.pl

 

GUESTS

 

Prof. Gaute T. Einevoll
Norwegian University of Life Sciences and University of Oslo, Norway

Professor of physics at the at the Norwegian University of Life Sciences and University of Oslo. His main research interests are on biophysical modelling of electrical signals and various aspects of multiscale modeling of early sensory pathways, including how to connect models at different levels of detail, biophysical modeling of astrocytes and their interactions with neurons, as well development of neuroinformatics tools. Prof. Einevoll received his master’s in physics from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology in Trondheim in 1985 and his doctoral degree in theoretical physics from the same university in 1991. He is currently serving as the vice-president of the Organization of Computational Neurosciences, and is also a co-leader of the Norwegian national node of the International Neuroinformatics Coordinating Society (INCF).


Prof. Dr. Fernando H. Lopes da Silva
University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

F.H. Lopes da Silva received his M.D. from the University of Lisbon and the Ph.D. degree from the University of Utrecht (1970). He taught Neurophysiology (from 1975 to 1985) at the Twente University (program Bio-Medical Engineering). He was appointed full professor in General Physiology at the Faculty of Sciences at the University of Amsterdam in 1980 (since 2000 he is Emeritus Professor). He was the first director of the Institute of Neurobiology of the Faculty of Science of the University of Amsterdam. In 1985, he was elected member of the Netherlands Royal Academy of Arts and Sciences.
From 1995 to 2002, he was Scientific Director of the Institute of Epilepsy (Heemstede). Since 2005 he is part-time Professor of the Superior Institute of Technology of University of Lisbon in the framework of the post-graduate Program in Bio-Medical
Engineering. He received several honors, among which degrees of Doctor Honoris Causa (Universities of Lisbon, Porto and Helsinki), the Herbert H. Jasper Award of the American Clinical Neurophysiology Society, the degree of grand-officer of the Order of Santiago da Espada of Portugal, and the degree of knight of the order of the “Nederlandse Leeuw”. His research interests are mainly the study of the electrophysiology and biophysics of brain systems, in particular the origin and organization of rhythmic activities of the brain, and the origin of epileptic phenomena especially of absence seizures. Furthermore he researches the functional organization of neuronal networks in relation to cognitive processes.
His six most important publications in the research area of the lecture condacted od 5th AoN (citations according to Google Scholar):

 

  • Meeren HKM; Pijn JPM; Van Luijtelaar ELJM; Coen AM and Lopes da Silva, FH. Cortical focus drives widespread cortico-thalamic networks during spontaneous absence seizures in rats. Journal of Neuroscience, 2002; 22 (4): 1480-1495. (594 Citations)
  • Lopes da Silva F, Blanes W, Kalitzin SN, Parra J, Suffczynski P, Velis DN. Epilepsies as dynamical diseases of brain systems: basic models of the transition between normal and epileptic activity. Epilepsia, 2003;44 Suppl 12:72-83, 2003. (545 Citations).
  • Lopes da Silva, FH, Blanes, W, Kalitzin, SN, Parra, J, Suffczynski, P, Velis. DN. Dynamical diseases of brain systems: different routes to epileptic seizures. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Eng 50 (5): 540-548, 2003, (238 Citations)
  • Suffczynski P, Kalitzin S, Lopes da Silva FH. Dynamics of non-convulsive epileptic phenomena modeled by a bistable neuronal network. Neuroscience. 2004;126(2):467-84.(184 Citations)
  • Meeren, H., van Luijtelaar, G., Lopes d Silva, F., Coenen, A. Evolving concepts on the pathophysiology of absence seizures: the cortical focus theory. Archives of Neurology 62 (3): 371-376, 2005. (250 Citations)
  • Lopes da Silva, F . EEG and MEG: relevance to Neuroscience. Neuron, 80(5): 112-1128, 2013. (63 Citations)


Prof. Wojciech Maksymowicz
University of Warmia and Mazury, Olsztyn, Poland

Prof. Wojciech Maksymowicz, MD, PhD was born on 24th Mai 1955 in Włocławek. In 1980 he graduated from the Medical University of Warsaw, where he also received his doctorate (1980) and later post-doctoral degree (1994). He received his 1st and 2nd degree specialization in the range of neurosurgery and neurotraumatology (1983 and 1987) during his 12 years’ work in Neurosurgery Clinic at the Medical University of Warsaw. During that time he performed the first implantations of the epidural spinal cord stimulations in Poland in the cooperation with Restorative Neurology in Baylor College in Houston. He has been completing his neurosurgery knowledge during 5-years’ European Neurosurgery Course organized by European Association of Neurosurgical Societies, he completed the course in 1992 in Jerusalem. In 1990 he worked scientifically in the Clinic of Neurosurgery Wessex Neurological Center of the University in Southampton. Over the period 1997-1999 he was the Minister of Health and Social Welfare of the Polish Republic, leading the implementation of the huge health care reform. Then, he was the head of Neurosurgery Department in the Central Clinical Hospital of the Ministry of Interior in Warsaw. On a proposal from the Scientific Council of Military Medical Institute in 2006 – he received the professor’s degree. Since 2007 he has been the Dean of the Faculty of Medical Sciences at the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, at the same time being the head of the Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Neurosurgery Clinic and Laboratory of Research on Stem Cells at this university . He is the author of over 120 publications and scientific reports. He is the member of Scientific Council to the Health Minister of Poland.

Dr. Tor Stensola
Champalimaud Centre for the Unknown, Lisbon, Portugal

I am from Kristiansand Norway. Started neuroscience at Bachelor degree level at University of Otago in New Zealand (2005-7, together with my partner Hanne). I then did my Masters in Neuroscience at University of Oxford (2007-8) UK, working with Jozsef Csicvari, then Ole Paulsen focusing on hippocampal and entorhinal electrophysiology (in vivo, then in vitro). I then proceeded to do my PhD under Edvard and May-Britt Moser’s supervision (Trondheim Norway 2008-2014) where the focus was in-vivo characterisation of the grid cell –and head direction– systems on the population level. Currently, I am doing a post doc in Alfonso Renart’s lab at Champalimaud Centre for the Unknown. Here I focus on laminar dynamics of expectations (priors) during perceptual decision making in primary auditory cortex. Otherwise, I enjoy mountains and music.

Dr. Esha Massand
Centre for Brain and Cognitive Development, Birkbeck, University of London, England

Dr. Massand completed her PhD under the supervision of Prof. Bowler at City University London, investigating event-related potentials (ERPs) related to episodic memory in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder. She completed part of the PhD in Montreal, with Dr. Jemel at the Hôpital Rivière-des-Prairies (Montreal, 2007) where she was originally trained to use ERP methodology. Following completion of her thesis, Dr. Massand moved to Seattle to continue my training in electrophysiology as a Postdoctoral Fellow at the University of Washington with Dr. Webb working on a large-scale study investigating the broader autism phenotype. Dr. Esha Massand is currently based at the Centre on Brain and Cognitive Development (CBCD), Birkbeck, University of London with Prof. Karmiloff-Smith on a project that aims to help us better understand the links between Down syndrome and Alzheimer’s disease. Because of their brain pathology of plaques and tangles, people with Down syndrome are much more likely than the general population to develop Alzheimer’s disease, yet only 50% go on to display clinical symptoms. So they are aiming to discover both the risk and protective factors for Alzheimer’s.


Prof. Dr. Peter De Weerd
Maastricht University, Maastricht , The Netherlands

Prof. De Weerd (PhD) is by training a clinical psychologist, who during his PhD period re-oriented towards neuroscience. Currently, he is a Professor in the Neurosciences of Perceptual Learning and Attention at Maastricht University (UM). At the Faculty of Psychology and Neuroscience at UM, he has been Scientific Director (2006-2010), and Director of the Neurophysics Graduate School (2010-2013), and head of the Perception, Attention and Learning section with teams at Maastricht University and at the Radboud University Nijmegen. His research deals with low-level perceptual processes, and modification of these processes by feedback (learning and attention). The research in his team uses motor, somatosensory and visual systems in humans and animal models, using an integrative approach with methods ranging from molecular approaches to neurophysiology, MEG and fMRI. He has edited two books, and published~60 papers.



ABSTRACT BOOK – Guests lectures

*Neuroscience with both hands: bridging scales with mathematics
Prof. Gaute T. Einevoll; Norwegian University of Life Sciences and University of Oslo, Norway

Neuroscience is struggling. Despite decades of intense research we still do not understand much regarding how the brain works, and we have still little to offer against pervasive and serious brain afflictions like dementia or psychiatric diseases like schizophrenia. So a natural question is: Are we doing brain research in the best way? Are there ways to do it better?
A main challenge of neuroscience is the many scales involved, from the molecular scale to whole brains and behaviour. And these different scales are intimately connected. For example, a change in a molecule, such as a mutation in the DNA molecule, can have devastating effects for the entire animal or human. But multiple scales are not unique to biological systems. The design of a modern SmartPhone is, for example, based on the bridging across numerous scales, from atoms to semiconductors to transistors to chips on the hardware side, and from machine code via lowlevel and highlevel programming languages to graphical interaction with apps on the software side.
Behind this amazing development lies decades of intimate and comprehensive multidisciplinary collaborations between experimentalists (‘one of the hands’) and modelers (‘the other hand’) building and testing matemathical models at the different scales. In the presentation I will argue for the need of a similar twohanded multisdiscipllnary approach to bridging scales in neuroscience and discuss key challenges for such a program.


Population Codes in Medial Entorhinal Cortex
Tor Stensola; Champalimaud Centre for the Unknown, Lisbon, Portugal

The study of spatial mapping traces its roots to the cognitive map theory of Edward Tolman and, 20 years later, the discovery of spatially tuned cells (place cells) in the hippocampus. A decade ago, cells with periodic spatial tuning (grid cells) were discovered upstream, in the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC). Grid cells have several spatial firing fields that tile the environment in a hexagonal grid pattern. The hippocampal-entorhinal spatial circuit offers sufficiently distinct and low-dimensional behavioural correlates for investigations into structure-function relationships of the higher-order cortices. Although much was known about the grid map on the single cell level, how this system is organised on the population level was not known. After overcoming several technical obstacles, we could record up to 186 grid cells within single animals. Analyses on this population level revealed that the grid map is composed of a small set of independently functioning modules –or submaps– arranged differently from known sensory cortices. The grid is thought to be an internally generated pattern, which is mapped onto real world coordinates to gain spatial invariance over time. We show that grid modules anchor to the geometry of the recording environment in a highly specific and stereotypic manner, and that this may serve to optimally disambiguate spatial location for the animal.


Computational modeling of neural systems: a case study – the dynamics of Absence Epilepsies
Fernando H. Lopes da Silva; University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Computational Neuroscience covers a wide range of aspects, from microscopic, to mesosocopic and macroscopic dimensions. In the lecture I will, first, briefly point out some milestones of modeling studies of neurons and neuronal networks at the microscopic and mesoscopic levels. Second, I will consider macroscopic features, introducing “Neural Mass Models” in order to emphasize the dynamics of neural activity, focusing on a case study, namely the analysis of the dynamics of the thalamo – cortical system in connection to the occurrence of Absence epileptic seizures. Indeed neural networks can display bi-stable behavior i.e., they can feature two co-existing operational states, ictal, characterized by epileptic activities such as Spike-and-Waves and a transient loss of consciousness, and interictal, characterized by on-going normal brain activity. This dynamical behaviour can be reproduced by the computational model (“face value”). A parameter sensitivity analysis of the computational model of this system allows formulating hypotheses about underlying physiological mechanisms that can be tested (“constructive value”). I will pay special attention to the question “How do transitions between these two states occur?”; the possible contributions of Poisson and random walk processes, or of deterministic time-dependent mechanisms are evaluated both using the computational approach and experimentally, in in vivo animal models of absence epilepsy, in in vitro brain slices, and also in human epilepsies. Finally whether the computational model has also “predictive value” is examined.


Neurocognitive memory-related phenotypes of infants with Down syndrome may predict protective/risk markers for Alzheimer’s disease
Dr. Esha Massand; Centre for Brain and Cognitive Development, Birkbeck, University of London, England

Virtually all individuals with Down syndrome (DS) will, by as early as age 30, present with the common histopathological brain features of the Alzheimer’s disease (AD) (particularly the build-up of beta-amyloid plaques). This is because the amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene lies on chromosome 21 and is thus over-expressed in DS. Yet, not all individuals with DS go on to develop dementia. Moreover, other genes are also involved, and it remains unclear why some individuals with DS develop dementia while others do not. However, since one of the major genes contributing to AD is overexpressed early in development, and given that individuals with AD demonstrate decline in their explicit object-location memory (Kessels et al., 2005b), we set out to identify individual differences in memory abilities of infants with DS that may be similar to DS memory phenotypes seen in adults with or without AD dementia. We will present our data from 58 infants with DS, aged 6-60 months, from eye-tracking memory tasks. Combined, these tasks reveal an interesting profile of memory performance and individual differences among children with DS. We hope that these findings yield potential clinical markers (endophenotypes) for the cognitive variation in individuals with DS.


A model-based experimental investigation into the contribution of gamma oscillations to neural communication
Prof. Dr. Peter de Weerd; Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands

Since the time brain oscillations were first measured, psychologists and neuroscientists have tried to assign specific functions to them. Oscillations in the gamma frequency range have for example been linked with neural communication (Fries, Trends Cogn. Sci., 2005) and binding (von der Malsburg, Curr. Opin. Neurobiol., 1995). However, these influential proposals have been challenged by an accumulation of data from a number of groups, indicating that gamma oscillations have seemingly random properties (Burns et al., J. Neurosci., 2010), and that gamma power and frequency are strongly influenced by stimulus properties (e.g., Ray and Maunsell, Neuron, 2010). These findings have challenged the assumption of stability that implicitly underlies current theories on the contributions of gamma to brain function. We have combined modelling and neurophysiological recording in behaving rhesus monkeys to test new hypotheses on the role of gamma, in which the variation and stimulus dependency of gamma is exploited for the purpose of organizing neural communication. Based on the idea that cortex can be seen as a set of local oscillators (columns) that are connected with their neighbours with a certain probability depending on mutual distance, and based on the idea that local stimulus drive will set the gamma frequency of the oscillators (Roberts et al., Neuron, 2013), we hypothesized that synchronization in the cortex would obey the mathematical laws specified in the Theory of Weakly Coupled Oscillators (TWCO, see Pikovski et al., Am. J. Phys., 2002). We then tested the TWCO by recording from monkey V1 with multiple neighboring depth probes, and found that synchronization behaviour in the gamma range in a broad range of stimulation conditions was predicted by TWCO. Moreover, in additional modelling, the patterns of synchronization in response to natural stimuli appeared to be useful for early sensory (visual) processes, such as segmentation and grouping (Lowet et al., PLOS Comp. Biol., 2015). Our empirical and modelling data reconcile opposing views on the role of gamma, by assigning a function to the seemingly random and seemingly purposeless stimulus-driven variations in gamma, and by providing a principled mathematical framework that constrains gamma to confined networks and limited cognitive functions.


New horizon of the restoration of impaired nervous system function
Prof. Wojciech Maksymowicz, MD; Centre for Brain and Cognitive Development, Birkbeck, University of London, England

The dreaming of the regeneration of parts of human body is so long like human history.
It is really possible in some cases, because our cells have the regenerating potential. It happens every day when new erytrocytes replace old ones, and if there is the need to feel in the gap of destroyed skin, as well as the necessity of rebuilding the liver cells poisoned by strong alcohol drinking.
Thanks the development of the researches on cell and molecular biology new dreams occurred in our brains. Could we improve impaired brain and spinal cord function? Can we rebuild parts of Central Nervous system destroyed by head or spine injury, spontaneous bleeding or ischemic stroke, or due the development of degenerating disease. People with neurological deficit are waiting for our discoveries. Tetraplegic, paraplegic, with tremor and stiffness in Parkinson disease, without contact with other people because only brain is still functioning, like in serious form of Amniotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, or in comatose state with Minimal Conscious State syndrome. It is not only the field for the production of new papers, but true human need.
Last years showed that it is beginning of new era of neurobiology. Thanks close cooperation of biologists, medical doctors, informatics and technology researchers there are new achievments:
- the use of stem cells with their regulating and growing factors activating own tissue regenerating abilities
- true stem cells transplantation into the destroyed brain and spinal cord
- the use of neuromodulation (electric and magnetic field) for improving the Central Nervous System function
- construction of complicated recording and neuromodulating systems as neuroprosthesis recovering working instead of < completely destroyed part of central or peripheric nervous system.
It is really fascinating and nobody can divide the possible future discoveries and science-fiction.

 

PROGRAM

November 27, 2015 (Friday)

 

16.00 Registration opens

18.00 Opening ceremony

 

18.15 – 19.15 Opening lecture

Neuroscience with both hands: bridging scales with mathematics 

Prof. Gaute T. Einevoll

 

November 28, 2015 (Saturday)

09.00 – 11.25  I SESSION (Neurobiology)

09.00 – 10.00

Population Codes in Medial Entorhinal Cortex

Dr. Tor Stensola

10.05 – 11.25 I seminar session

SI.B1 How addiction silences the brain and what can we do about it?

Maria Nalberczak

SI.E1 Dual processing of sulfated steroids in the amphibian olfactory system

Alfredo Sansone

 

SI.B2  Prion-like mechanisms in neurodegenerative diseases

Bartosz Niżyński

SI.E2 Firing pattern of dopaminergic neurons correlates to on ongoing brain state under urethane anaesthesia

Magdalena Walczak

 

SI.B3 Development of PKCy interneurons within the medullary dorsal horn of rats: anatomical and electrophysiological studies

Mermet Noemie

SI.E3 Does systemic inflammation induced in young rats change the seizure susceptibility in adulthood? Hippocampal microglia as a main player

Emilia Kosonowska

 

SI.B4 Maternal separation influences long-term potentiation in the rat hippocampus and lateral amygdala

Aleksandra Trenk

SI.E4 Better together - efficient assessment of social interactions in rodents

Alicja Puścian

 

11.25 – 11.35 Discussion

11.35 – 11.50 Coffee break

11.50 – 13.35 II SESSION (Computational neuroscience) 

11.50 – 12.50

Computational modeling of neural systems: a case study – the dynamics of Absence Epilepsies

Prof. Dr. Fernando H. Lopes da Silva

12.55 – 13.35 II seminar session

SII.B1 Brain atlases – the outline of the process of creation and applications in neuroscience

Iwona Nowakowska

SII.E1 Modelling the mechanisms of Steady State Evoked Potentials with computational model

Elżbieta Gajewska-Dendek

 

SII.B2  Sample size issues in EEG/MEG multisource localization

Mateusz Wilk, Jan Nikadon

SII.E2  Web technologies in neuroimaging and brain data analysis

Adam Rybiński

 

13.35 – 13.45 Discussion

 

13.45 – 14.45 Lunch break

 

14.45 – 16.45 Experimental Poster Session, Main Hall

 

16.45 – 19.00 III SESSION (Clinical Neuroscience) 

16.45 – 17.45

New horizon of the restoration of impaired nervous system function.

Prof. Wojciech Maksymowicz

17.45 – 19.00 III seminar session

SIII.B1 Phonosemantic indicators of psychological defense mechanisms of patients with alcohol addiction syndrome

Anastasya Lagutina

SIII.E1 Emerging role of beta-synuclein and its’ mutants in Parkinson’s disease and dementia with Lewy bodies

Maryna Psol

 

SIII.B2 < The role of microglia and neuroinflammation in depression

Joanna Sowa

SIII.E2 The incidence and pathogenic role of John Cunningham Virus in patients with chosen neurologic diseases

Joanna Janowska

 

SIII.E3 and decrease factors in oxydative stress - significant factors for brain conditione

Agnieszka Skalska-Kamińska

 

18.50 – 19.00 Discussion

19:00 Plenary discussion (audience hall 9B)

20/21 – INTEGRATION MEETING

 

 November 29, 2015 (Sunday)

 

10.00 – 12.45 IV SESSION (Cognitive Neuroscience) 

10.00 – 11.00

Neurocognitive memory-related phenotypes of infants with Down syndrome may predict protective/risk markers for Alzheimer’s disease

Dr. Esha Massand

11.05 – 12.25 IV seminar session

SIV.B1 Two separate neural systems of resolving the exploration-exploitation dilemma

Wojciech Zajkowski

SIV.E1 The role of monocular and binocular depth cues in perception of orientation in space

Lavinia Carmen Uscatescu

SIV.B2 Abnormalities in action self-monitoring in anxiety-prone population

Ewelina Cichoń

SIV.E2 ERP correlates of visually induced illusion of self-motion during the oddball task

Marta Ratomska, Paweł Stróżak



SIV.B3 Neuro-egoism and neuro-narcissism. Do they really exist?

Ilona Kotlewska

SIV.E3  Close your eyes and read: The reading processes in the blind

Katarzyna Rączy

 

SIV.B4 Memory and epigenetics

Jan Jędryszek

SIV.E4  Numerical modeling the influence of electromagnetic fields on human brain activity

Beata Szuflitowska

 

12.25 – 12.35 Discussion

12.35 – 12.50 Coffee break

12.50 – 14.15 Theoretical Poster Session

14.20 – 15.20 Closing lecture

A model-based experimental investigation into the contribution of gamma oscillations to neural communication

Prof. Dr. Peter de Weerd

15.25 Closing Remarks

(with awards for the best oral and poster presentations)

 

ORAL SESSIONS ABSTRACT

 

I - NEUROBIOLOGY SESSION

 

SI.B1  How addiction silences the brain and what can we do about it?

Maria Nalberczak

Addiction is one of the most important psychopathologies in the modern world, but we still do not know enough about it. Thanks to years of research, we know that in addiction are involved: brain structures connected into reward system, types of the connections between the structures and, the latest findings shows that, the organization of synapses (“silent synapses”) might also play a role. Synapses contains NMDA receptors which are crucial for neuronal plasticity but cannot be activated without acute excitation of AMPA receptors, which in “silent synapses” are missing. Silent synapse literature concentrating on the influence of cocaine on nucleus accumbens shows how important silent synapses appears to be. Alcohol addiction is a complicated one as it does not send an obvious reward message. To be able to measure physiological and molecular changes in the alcohol addicted brain, we developed a model in Intellicages - automated cages in which animals can live in groups for long period of time and be tested without human intrusion. We treated animals with alcohol for 30 days and then started testing them for alcoholism like behaviors: motivation, persistence in alcohol seeking, withdrawal by restricting access to alcohol, cue and alcohol relapse. In all tests we found the development of mice which were much more active towards alcohol than others. Those mice were consistent in performance in all alcoholism-like-behaviors. During the talk I will show you if the number of silent synapses is specific for alcohol in comparison to water and sugar, what the dynamics of the silent synapse appearance are and what we are going to do about it.

 

SI.B2 Prion-like mechanisms in neurodegenerative diseases

Bartosz Niżyński

Investigation of the correlation between neurodegeneration (a process which is characterized by the progressive death of neurons) and amyloidogenesis (a process which leads to the formation of amyloid fibrils that are ordered protein aggregates) has become a profoundly important research subject. Studies on molecular and cellular pathways of neurodegeneration can help us understand basis of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD). These serious neurological disorders could be characterized by the same molecular mechanism which is responsible for the propagation of the disease-associated β-sheet-rich form of prion protein (PrPSc) in prion diseases (e.g. kuru, scrapie, mad cow disease and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease). PrPSc can autocatalytically self-propagate its abnormal structure by templating the nucleated conformational conversion of the normal α-helix-rich prion protein molecules (PrPC). This „Dr Jeckyll and Mr Hyde” syndrome is not only exclusive to PrP. Other amyloidogenic proteins can also rapidly assemble, propagate the aberrant structure and spread the pathology within anatomically connected brain regions, causing progression of a disease. Such a pathological mechanism has been extensively studied in the cases of: Aβ and Tau which aberrant aggregation characterizes neuropathologically the brains of patients with AD, α-synuclein which pathologically aggregates in PD and huntingtin which amyloidogenesis is a hallmark of HD. Additionally, in a similar way to PrPSc, the amyloidogenic proteins can form amyloid strains which are unique amyloidogenic structural variants with various neurotoxicity. Amyloid strains can be responsible for various cognitive impairments observed among patients with AD, PD and HD. The emerging prion concept targets new molecular treatment strategies such as engineering antibodies directed against particular strains and blocking the spread of 'proteinaceous infectious particles'. Therefore, this concept can be considered as a great promise in the fight against neurodegenerative diseases.



SI.B3 Development of PKCy interneurons within the medullary dorsal horn of rats: anatomical and electrophysiological studies

Mermet Noemie

In the adult rats, neurons expressing the gamma isoform of protein kinase C (PKCγ) and located predominantly in the inner part of lamina II (IIi) of the spinal and medullary dorsal horn (MDH) regulate key cellular events that lead to nociceptive circuits. Evidence from many studies indicates that these neurons are involved in cutaneous hypersensitivity such as mechanical allodynia. In contrast to adults, both nociceptive and innocuous signals are processed differently in neonates and apparition of pain symptoms depends on the developmental stage. The difference in sensory responses in neonates versus adults could be explained by a late development of PKCγ+ interneurons. Using immunohistochemical and whole-cell patch-clamp recordings techniques in slices of rat MDH, we characterized the apparition of PKCγ+ interneurons, their quantitative and morphological evolutions and their electrophysiological properties from 5 to 30 postnatal days (P5-P30). In lamina IIi, PKCγ+ interneurons appear at P5 and then increase in number until P13/P14 where they reach the adult number pattern. PKCγ+ interneurons neuritic arborization in younger rats (P5-P10) displays significantly greater number of branches than that of older animals (P20-P30). The volume of the soma also increases with age. Electrophysiological results reveal that the resting membrane potential becomes more hyperpolarized, the input resistance and the action potential widths significantly decrease. In addition, the number of spontaneous excitatory synaptic events increases while their amplitude significantly decreases from P5 to P30. Together, our data indicate that many changes in morphology and membrane/synaptic properties of PKCγ+ interneurons occur during the first three postnatal weeks. These changes could explain the difference in sensory response between neonates and adults.

 

SI.B4 Maternal separation influences long-term potentiation in the rat hippocampus and lateral amygdala.

Aleksandra Trenk

Exposure to stress early in life may induce persistent alterations in various functions of the organism in the adulthood. The maternal separation (MS) of rat pups, a widely used animal model to study early adversity, results in an increased level of fear and anxiety in adolescent and adult rats. It has been postulated that functional and/or structural alterations in discrete brain areas, observed after MS, might be the cause of behavioral disturbances. However, the influence of MS on synaptic plasticity, which appears to provide mechanisms for learning and memory, remains poorly understood. In the present study the effects of MS on long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1 area of the rat hippocampus and in the lateral amygdala (LA) were investigated. Rat pups were subjected to MS for 3 hours per day on postnatal days (PND) 1-21. They were weaned at PND 28 and ex vivo electrophysiological experiments were conducted between PNDs 42 and 60. Field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSP) were recorded from coronal slices containing a part of the hippocampus and the lateral amygdala. LTP was induced using the high frequency stimulation (HFS) in the CA1 area of the hippocampus or using theta-burst stimulation (TBS) in the thalamic and the cortical inputs to the LA. The results indicate that MS impairs LTP both in the thalamic and the cortical inputs to the LA. We also observed lower magnitude of LTP in CA1 area of the rat hippocampus when the slices were incubated in the ACSF containing lowered concentration of Mg2+ ions (0.1 mM). In contrast, in the presence of 1 mM Mg2+ the amount of LTP was similar in slices obtained from the control group and MS-subjected animals. Thus, maternal separation stress decreases the potential for synaptic plasticity in both structures, but mechanisms involved in this impairments appear to be distinct.

Support: National Science Center, Poland, grant no. 2011/03/N/NZ4/02176.

 

SI.E1 Dual processing of sulfated steroids in the amphibian olfactory system

Alfredo Sansone

Chemical communication is widespread in amphibians, but if compared to later diverging tetrapods the available functional data is limited. The existing information on the vomeronasal system of anurans is particularly sparse. Amphibians represent a transitional stage in the evolution of the olfactory system. Most species have anatomically separated main and vomeronasal systems, but recent studies have shown that in anurans their molecular separation is still underway. Sulfated steroids function as migratory pheromones in lamprey and have recently been identified as natural vomeronasal stimuli in rodents. Here we identified sulfated steroids as the first known class of vomeronasal stimuli in the amphibian Xenopus laevis. We show that sulfated steroids are detected and concurrently processed by the two distinct olfactory subsystems of larval Xenopus laevis, the main olfactory system and the vomeronasal system. Our data revealed a similar but partially different processing of steroid-induced responses in the two systems. Differences of detection thresholds suggest that the two information channels are not just redundant, but rather signal different information. Furthermore, we found that larval and adult animals excrete multiple sulfated compounds with physical properties consistent with sulfated steroids. Breeding tadpole and frog water including these compounds activated a large subset of sensory neurons that also responded to synthetic steroids, showing that sulfated steroids are likely to convey intraspecific information. Our findings indicate that sulfated steroids are conserved vomeronasal stimuli functioning in phylogenetically distant classes of tetrapods living in aquatic and terrestrial habitats.

SI.E2 Firing pattern of dopaminergic neurons correlates to on ongoing brain state under urethane anaesthesia.

Magdalena Walczak

Dopaminergic neurons within ventral tegmental area subregions (VTA) and substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) are an important part of the reward system. Activity pattern of these neurons determines amount of dopamine released in target structures. Observed firing patterns can be described as tonic and bursting one. Tonic or irregular (non-bursting) pattern of generation of action potentials maintains basic levels of DA in target structures, whereas bursting pattern of firing leads to phasic increase in amount of synaptically released dopamine. Importantly, the DA-like cells are able to switch between these two distinct activity modes depending on ongoing brain state. It has been previously found that DA-like neurons change their pattern of activity during sleep, with prominent bursting during REM and non-bursting firing during Non-REM phase. Since urethane anaesthesia is postulated to be a model of cyclic sleep-like alternations of the brain state, we have performed experiments aimed to correlate changes in the firing pattern of midbrain DA neurons with changes of the brain state. In our research we have performed extracellular in vivo recordings of midbrain DA neurons’ activity and simultaneous electrocorticographic monitoring of the brain state in urethane anaesthetised Wistar rats. Obtained results showed correlation between ongoing brain state under anaesthesia and firing mode of recorded cells. Namely, during cortical activation, which corresponds to paradoxical sleep state, we have observed non-bursting (tonic or irregular) activity while during deactivation state (slow wave sleep equivalent) bursting mode dominated. Observed relationship was then opposite to the one reported during natural sleep. Our results confirm that activity of midbrain DA neurons is correlated with alternating states of the brain and emphasize that influence of aesthetic drugs used during electrophysiological recording should not be neglected.

 

SI.E3 Does systemic inflammation induced in young rats change the seizure susceptibility in adulthood? Hippocampal microglia as a main player

Emilia Kosonowska

Epilepsy is a common neurological emergency with considerable morbidity, mortality, and associated health-care costs. Emerging clinical and experimental evidence indicates that neuroinflammation is involved in epileptogenesis. However, it is also suggested that early age inflammation acting as a preconditioning factor may have neuroprotective effects in case of epilepsy. Microglial cells as the immune competent cells of the CNS can both facilitate reparatory and regenerative processes and initiate and exacerbate neuropathological changes. Therefore microglia is considered to play an important functional role in epilepsy and epileptogenesis. We used parameters of the microglial morphology to indicate postinflammatory changes in the hippocampus and to observe nervous tissue reactivity to seizures in adult rats experiencing inflammation at earlier stages of postnatal development. Wistar rats were injected intraperitoneally with LPS on postnatal days 6 (P06) or 30 (P30). When became two-month-old, they were injected with pilocarpine to evoke status epilepticus and sacrificed three days later. Brain sections were then processed for Iba-1 immunohistochemistry to visualize microglia. Thereafter morphology of microglial cells located in hippocampal formation (CA3 and DG) was analyzed using parameters such as solidity, circularity and area. The Sholl analysis was also performed to assess level of ramification of examined cells. In adult rats pretreated with LPS on P06 and P30 seizure-induced changes in morphology were significantly reduced compared to rats which weren’t injected with LPS. It can be said that the morphology of microglia in those groups remained closer to normal. These results in combination with data showing that the course of epileptic seizures in animals submitted to the LPS injection on P30 was significantly ameliorated in relation to both control, and L06 group, can suggest that inflammation suffered on early developmental stages has effects on susceptibility to seizures induced in adulthood.

Supported by NCS GRANT: UMO-2012/05/B/NZ4/02406.



SI.E4 Better together - efficient assessment of social interactions in rodents

Alicja Puścian

Impairments of social interactions are a key feature of autism spectrum disorders. Although there exist behavioral assays designed for evaluation of conspecific-related behavior in mice, available tasks do not allow for longitudinal observations of spontaneous interactions between littermates. Furthermore, the experiments are usually carried out on isolated animals and require their handling by an experimenter. These factors may exert confounding, anxiety-related effects on obtained data and result in large between-laboratory variability. In order to alleviate these problems, we designed Eco-HAB - a fully automated, stress-reducing tool for assessment of voluntary social interactions in group-housed mice. Using Eco-HAB, we assessed social approach of valproate-treated BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice (in utero exposure to this drug is one of pharmacological models of autistic phenotype) and Fmr1 knock-out mice (expansion of the CGG trinucleotide repeat affecting the Fragile X mental retardation 1 gene is the most widespread single-gene cause of autism). We determined that despite previously documented deficits of place learning (BALB/c) and repetitive behaviors (C57BL/6), none of valproate-treated models displays impairments in social interactions. Moreover, we observed significant enhancement in behaviors oriented towards olfactory stimuli of the conspecific-provenience. These data are consistent with the results obtained with three-chambered apparatus test, performed in stress-reducing conditions. On the other hand, Fmr1 knock-out subjects exhibited disrupted pattern of social stimulus approaching. We argue that when utilizing mouse models of autism for developing therapeutic strategies, one should focus on particular behavioral impairments, corresponding to individual symptoms in patients, rather than try to address a rarely appearing all-inclusive phenotype. Eco-HAB enables such research, asserts high reliability and reproducibility. It imitates natural habitat by taking into account specific features of murine behavior. Therefore, we claim that Eco-HAB is a valuable and reliable tool for the assessment of social interactions and gathering knowledge about functional relations in-group housed mice.

 

II - COMPUTATIONAL NEUROSCIENCE

 

SII.B1 Brain atlases – the outline of the process of creation and applications in neuroscience

Iwona Nowakowska

The process of making a brain atlas is a sum of various smaller projects and work of many (neuro)scientists. That is why it is necessary for different fields of neuroscience - neurobiology, neuroinformatics, neuroanatomy and many other branches to work together on creating the final product. Sometimes the work on an atlas is divided into very small parts to make sure every single aspect of it is created by a specialist. The author of the presentation is going to outline the main steps of creating a brain atlas, its applications and share her experience as a co-worker in creating a rat brain atlas. The presentation consists of two parts. The first one aims to outline the main steps of creating a brain atlas of a human or an animal. It is going to describe briefly how a way from a real brain to an atlas publication looks like and how the neurosciences help each other to make the atlas a trustworthy source of knowledge. The second one presents the applications of brain atlases and the expectations and hopes that scientists have about them – how they can help the medical staff, the patients who suffer from brain diseases and the researchers and also why do we make non-human brain atlases, for example rat’s or opossum’s. It is also going to present the most important atlases which are used worldwide and their authors.

 

SII.B2  Sample size issues in EEG/MEG multisource localization

Mateusz Wilk, Jan Nikadon

We consider a problem of practical application of Multisource Activity Index (MAI), the tool designed for localization of brain sources of EEG/MEG signals displaying correlated activity (Moiseev et al., 2011). First, under classical Gaussian model, we define accuracy coefficients related to values of MAI and we derive the uniform bound for corresponding confidence intervals. Then, using simulations performed in MATLAB, we analyze two techniques expected to improve localization accuracy when we face small sample size and cross-correlated data: beam space technique and analytical covariance shrinkage.

This study was supported by a grant from the Polish National Science Centre (UMO - 2013/08/W/HS6/00333) "NeuroPerKog: development of phonematic hearing and working memory in infants and children", awarded to Prof. W. Duch.

 

SII.E1  Modelling the mechanisms of Steady State Evoked Potentials with computational model

Elżbieta Gajewska-Dendek

Steady State Evoked Potentials (SSEP) are emerging in EEG signal in response to periodically changing stimulus. Their frequencies correspond to stimulus frequency, its harmonics and subharmonics. The SSEP can be observed in visual, auditory and somatosensory modalities. The aim of this work is to investigate the mechanisms of SSEP generation with a computational model. We have constructed a model of neuronal network comprising single compartment excitatory and inhibitory cells with extended Hodgkin-Huxley dynamics. The network consists of multiple domains representing cortical columns. Connectivity is based on anatomical data from cat's primary visual cortex. The modelled neurons receive three kinds of Poisson inputs, which represent: (i) background sensory input from the thalamus, (ii) background top-down input from higher order cortical regions and (iii) periodic stimulus from the thalamus to all of the domains, representing sensory stimulation. The sensory stimulus was modelled by Poisson process, with mean rate modulated periodically in time by square or sinusoidal function at frequency in 7 to 50 Hz range. The EEG signal was modelled as a sum of synaptic currents of pyramidal neurons. We compare the simulation data with experimental EEG recordings obtained in somatosensory cortex area during vibrotactile stimulation. The spectra of modeled SSEP signals exhibit fundamental and higher harmonic frequencies similarly to experimental observations. The first harmonic is stronger than fundamental response for the driving frequencies smaller than network's natural frequency (15 – 20 Hz) as in the case of square stimulation in the EEG experiment. The neurons firing rates are approximately constant with stimulus frequency and the network oscillation emerges from irregular and sparse firing of individual neurons but in phase with the population rhythm. The modeling results suggest that the emergence of oscillatory synchrony patterns is mediated by inhibitory interneurons driven by periodic excitation. The observed SSEP oscillations are caused by firing-rate synchrony.

 

SII.E2 Web technologies in neuroimaging and brain data analysis

Adam Rybiński

 In the area of neuroscience there is a growing need for an interactive approach to data analysis and visualization. The main goal of this lecture is to provide an overview of several web technologies that can be used for this purpose. Webgl (Web Graphics Library) gives access to the graphic processors enabling real-time 3d visualizations in the browser, even on mobile devices, without the need of installing any specialized software. Three.js and X toolkit programming libraries help in building web applications capable of displaying various neuroimaging data. Project Jupyter provides the web interface for any major programming language currently used in computational neuroscience and data analysis. This gives an opportunity for interactive collaboration on any platform. In the presentation I will talk about projects that use webgl in neuroimaging data visualizations and discuss future possible uses of this technology in neuroscience. Additionally, I will present example neuroimaging data analysis performed in Jupyter notebook. I hope to provide the audience with the perspective over interactive way of data analysis and visualization that can be applied to different tasks we encounter in neuroscience.

 

III - CLINICAL NEUROSCIENCE

SIII.B1 Phonosemantic indicators of psychological defense mechanisms of patients with alcohol addiction syndrome

Anastasya Lagutina

Our goal was to reveal phonosemantic indicators of psychological defense mechanisms of alcohol dependent patients. The research was conducted on the base of 21 rehabilitation narcological unit of Republican Research and Practice Centre for Mental Health. Subject to research and analysis were the texts written by individuals with alcohol addiction syndrome and results of AUDIT test and Lifestyle Index enquirer. People living healthy lifestyles and doing yoga formed the control group. The research applied clinic psychological methods: questioning, Lifestyle Index enquirer, AUDIT test, method of phonosemantic text analysis and statistical methods of data processing. Questioning revealed age, education, marital status of individuals of both experimental and control groups, period and onset age of addiction of experimental group and the attitude to their problem and alcoholism in general. AUDIT test results identified experimental group as individuals with Alcohol Addiction Syndrome. Lifestyle Index enquirer allowed to study psychological defense mechanisms of alcohol addicted patients and those of control group. Basing on the research results we can conclude the following: Prevailing psychological defense mechanisms of alcohol dependent patients are regression, projection and substitution – maladaptive mechanisms, predisposing to mental disorders: regression – depressive type, projection – anxiety type, substitution – neurosis. Phonosemantic characteristics of texts by chemically dependent patients numerically differ from those by control group: positive characteristics outnumber negative ones 1,5 – 5 to 1 in the control group, whereas negative are 2-20 times more common than positive in the experimental group. Certain phonosemantic scales (good/bad, beautiful/ugly, hard/easy) can be regarded as markers of chemical dependency in text analysis. The research revealed interconnection between prevailing psychological defense mechanisms of alcohol dependent patients and certain phonosemantic characteristics, which is applicable for diagnostic and prognostic purposes.

 

SIII.B2  The role of microglia and neuroinflammation in depression

Joanna Sowa

Microglia are the resident immune cells of the central nervous system and a key player in innate immunity of the brain, however they have been shown to have a number of important roles beyond immune response. Convergent data suggests that microglial activation occurs in a number of neuropsychiatric conditions. A link between immune dysregulation and the pathophysiology of major affective disorder has long been hypothesized, for instance on the basis of similarity between symptoms of depressive disorders and sickness behavior. Moreover, a few studies have suggested a potential role of chemokines as important modulators of not only inflammation, but also processes occurring in the central nervous system potentially underlying mental diseases, including major depression. Fractalkine (CX3CL1) is a chemokine that is present mostly on neurons whereas its receptor (CX3CR1) on microglia cells, which is thought to be a way of the neuron-glia communication. Interestingly, disturbances in the CX3CL1/receptor system led to chronic microglia activation which could cause long-term behavioral changes in animals. If microglial pathology proves to be an important causative factor in neuropsychiatric disorders, modulators of microglial function may become a promising novel therapeutic strategy.



SIII.E1 Emerging role of beta-synuclein and its’ mutants in Parkinson’s disease and dementia with Lewy bodies

Maryna Psol

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most frequent neurodegenerative disorder which affects up to 2% of the population over the age of 65. Besides detrimental effects on the health of the patients, PD creates enormous economic burden for the healthcare system. Although the etiology and pathogenesis of PD and other synucleopathies are not yet well understood, growing evidence indicate the central role of alpha-synuclein in this processes. In addition to the fact that alpha-Synuclein is a major component of Lewy bodies (the histological hallmark of Parkinson’s disease), alpha-synuclein gene (SNCA) duplication and triplication as well as 8 missense mutations have been identified in familial cases of PD and related synucleopathies <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3995044/" target="_blank">(1)</a>. Meanwhile, the role of alpha-synuclein’s close homologue, beta-synuclein remains enigmatic. While some findings showed that beta-synuclein may ameliorate the alpha-synuclein-mediated aggregation and toxicity <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11327724" target="_blank">(2)</a>, others showed that beta-synuclein can fibrillate in vitro <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15966733" target="_blank">(3)</a> and cause degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in Substantia nigra <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23536356" target="_blank">(4)</a>. Moreover, two missense mutations of beta-synuclein, P123H and V70M, were identified, respectively, in familial and sporadic cases of dementia with Lewy bodies <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1808539/" target="_blank">(5)</a>. These mutants are prone to fibrillation and stimulate alpha-synuclein aggregation in cell-free assays. P123H-beta-synuclein transgenic mice is characterized by axonal swellings, astrogliosis and memory deficits, and co-expression of alpha-synuclein and P123H-beta-synuclein in double transgenic mice enhances neurodegeneration <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3060620/" target="_blank">(6)</a>. In our project we aim to examine the ability of beta-synuclein and its mutants to aggregate, induce neurotoxicity and influence respective properties of alpha-synuclein in vitro and in vivo. Recent data showing the aggregation propensities of beta- and P123H-beta-synuclein in cortex primary culture and rat’s Substantia nigra, determined with several biochemical assays, will be presented.



SIII.E2 The incidence and pathogenic role of John Cunningham Virus in patients with chosen neurologic diseases

Joanna Janowska

John Cunningham Virus (JCV) is a type of human polyomavirus from Papovaviridae family and seems to be more widespread than originally thought. JVC may cause a progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). A reactivation and clinical manifestation of PML is triggered by immunosuppression in patients with autoimmune diseases e.g. sclerosis multiplex. PML may be characterised by subacute onset of abnormalities like hemiparesis, dysarthria, sensory and balance disturbances, convulsions or may have no manifestation at all. The aim of this paper is to analyse the extent of exposition to JC virus in a group of patients suffering from sclerosis multiplex and in a group of patients suffering from headaches and back pain hospitalised at the Department of Neurology of Medical University of Lublin in 2014 and to emphasize the pathogenic role of JC virus. The presence of anti-JCV antibodies in human serum in these two groups of the patients will be compared: 30 sclerosis multiplex patients aged 22 up to 59 years old, including 33 % of men, and 30 patients without autoimmune diseases aged 23 - 62 years, including 40 % of men. Anti-JCV antibody serological status and index were determined by the 2-step second-generation anti-JCV antibody assay. The evidence of anti-JCV antibodies along with prior immunosuppressant use and undergoing monoclonal antibody treatment are three main risk factors for PML. As a result of confirmation test 76,66% of sclerosis multiplex patients are noted JCV positive and 64% of other patients are JCV negative. For patients with immunity deficits prevalence of PML is much higher. The study may contribute to spreading the knowledge and awareness of pathogenic role of JCV in order to avoid the severe immunosuppressant treatment complications.

 

SIII.E3 Incerase and decrease factors in oxydative stress - significant factors for brain conditione

Agnieszka Skalska-Kamińska

I'd like to focus on the following questions questions: <a href="http://www.pjoes.com/index.php?s=abs_id&amp;id=2008170416" target="_blank">(1)</a> How does the brain work in the oxidative stress conditions? Some redox reactions in tissues can generate free oxygen radicals. There is a variety of enzymes, small molecules and external (e.g. plants’) molecules playing the defensive role in living organisms. External antioxydants such as phenolic acids, flavonoides, antocyianins and polysaccharides investigated in my own experiments show ability to decrease the DPPH* level about 10%. In my scientific experiments human skin fibroblasts (HSF cells) showed good structure and ability to divide mitotically under the influence of plant extract from Malvae arborae flos. <a href="http://www.curipms.umlub.pl/issues/volume22/no4/a02/" target="_blank">(2)</a> What the brain „think” about antioxydants? We all know that fruits and vegetables are healthy. There are new science disciplines such as: nutrigenetic, metabolomic, nutripharmacology which try to come up with a scientific explanation for this old truth. But in practice it's not an easy task. It is really difficult to determine how exactly nutritional components are distributed in our body. Needless to say the most complex organ in the whole human body is the brain. We could speak of „alternative ways of transport” such as: the eyes to perceive good looking fruits, the nose to smell essential oils and the tastebuds enabling taste - the most pleasurable of all senses. Unfortunately this may pose a threat because of pseudoscience knowledge easily spread between uneducated patients. <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25362806" target="_blank">(3)</a> The question to tackle in the future: Is it possible to transport flavonoides into the brain tissues?

 

 IV - COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE 

SIV.B1  Two separate neural systems of resolving the exploration-exploitation dilemma

Wojciech Zajkowski

Exploration-exploitation trade-off is present in almost every facet in our lives. Adaptive decision making requires a careful balance between choosing well known options (exploiting) and seeking new alternatives, which might turn out more profitable in the future (exploring). How people solve this dilemma has been studied extensively by psychologists, mathematicians, and most recently, cognitive neuroscientists. Despite an abundance of studies there is still no established consensus on the neural mechanisms involved and research on this topic in the neuroscientific literature often produces seemingly diverging findings <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25062683" target="_blank">(1)</a>. A recent study by Wilson et al., <a href="http://wjh-www.harvard.edu/~dtg/WILSON%20ET%20AL%202014.pdf" target="_blank">(2)</a> has shown that people use two separate strategies in order to explore the environment. Directed exploration is driven by uncertainty and the need of obtaining information about the less known option and random exploration is driven by much simpler mechanisms connected to behavioral variability. A reasonable, biologically-guided assumption is that these two types of exploration are products of separate brain mechanisms. There is ample evidence that ties random exploration with the activity of subcortical structures and the noradrenergic and dopaminergic systems <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2430007/" target="_blank"> (3 </a>, <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4444758/" target="_blank"> 4 )</a>. On the other hand, many studies have also shown involvement of the right frontopolar cortex (RFPC) in uncertainty-driven exploratory choices <a href="http://www.cog.brown.edu/research/badrelab/papers/Badre_NEURON2012.pdf" target="_blank">(5 </a>, <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2635947/" target="_blank"> 6)</a>. Currently, work is done to show a causal role of RFPC in directed exploration (Zajkowski &amp; Wilson, in preparation). In this talk I will first introduce the concept of an exploration-exploitation tradeoff and explain how it applies to everyday situations. Next I will present the known neural mechanisms of dealing with this dilemma and the experimental evidence supporting the two sources of exploration hypothesis. Finally I will talk about the potential implications and challenges for further research in this area.

 

SIV.B2 Abnormalities in action self-monitoring in anxiety-prone population

Ewelina Cichoń

Source monitoring refers to individual ability to use cognitive processes to determine whether experience has the origin in the self or came from an exterior source. Monitoring is impaired in psychosis where individuals’ ongoing cognitive activity disables differentiating between real and imagined events. Therefore, schizophrenics have difficulties in discriminating imagined from performed actions. There is evidence showing an important role of anxiety in the development delusions and hallucinations. Moreover, some studies have found that patients with hallucinations make more source attribution errors for negative words. This suggests an influence of emotional processes on monitoring. Particularly, anxiety may affect self-monitoring processes and hallucinatory predisposition. Furthermore, several studies point out that abnormalities of source monitoring arise from neural over-activation brain regions involved in the processing of real percept during imagination. This abnormality is called ‘over-perceptualization’ and implicates self-generated intrusions due to impaired primary cortex. In the present study, we investigated source monitoring within anxiety-proneness. It was hypothesized that anxiety will be related to monitoring errors. To examine such hypothesis, by having forty-two undergraduates performed an action self-monitoring task where participants were be asked for imagine or perform presented actions. Subsequently, they recollected the presented actions and distinguished whether they imagined or performed the actions. We observed the positive relationship between trait-anxiety and self-monitoring errors. Particularly, it turned out that individuals with higher anxiety trait remembered more imagined actions as being performed. Clearly, our results suggest that trait-anxiety may be related to action self-monitoring deficits and anxiety can lead to occurrence of hallucinations-like experiences via abnormalities of monitoring. This outcome, in turn, corroborates a more general view on psychopathology that distress and emotional arousal maintain psychotic symptoms. In addition, our results suggest that anxiety may be involved in “over-perceptualization”.

This research has been supported by the National Science Center (Poland), and funded under award number 2014/15/B/HS6/03834 to R.S.

 

SIV.B3 Neuro-egoism and neuro-narcissism. Do they really exist?

Ilona Kotlewska

One of the central aspects of psychological egoism is to be motivated only by the self-interest. Going further into details we may understand egoism as the tendency to focus on one’s own needs and desires. There’s no research on neuro-egoism per se, however, if we treat egoism in a more general manner, i.e. as an approach to perceive the world through one’s own SELF, it occurs a wide area of research in neuroscience has already covered the problem. The newest researches in the field of neuroimaging studies present different views on the concept of neuro-egoism. Neural mechanisms of self-centered perception may be discussed in terms of person recognition and trait evaluation. Recent electroencephalographic research on face and name detection <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26234961" target="_blank">(1)</a> was focused on identifying the neural underpinnings of self-processing. The results indicate a certain pattern of cerebral responses to social cues, suggesting the self-referred stimuli is more attention engaging than stimuli related to other people. Additional study used the task of assigning trait adjectives to the self as well as closely related, famous and unknown persons (Kotlewska &amp; Nowicka, in prep). The results reveal a strong positivity bias towards the self-evaluation in comparison to the others. Both studies point the importance of the automatic self-focused mechanisms of attention in humans’ perception and interactions with the surrounding world. This work was funded by the National Science Centre [grant 2012/07/B/HS6/01283] (Poland).

 

SIV.B4 Memory and epigenetics

Jan Jędryszek

Learning is inseparably linked to memory. Learning is the act of gaining knowledge, behaviors, skills, or preferences. Memory is the process in which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved. Yet how the brain learns, and how it recalls learned information, remains a mystery to this day. Thanks to the famous patient H.M. we learned that the hippocampus is essential in memory storage. But further advancements show that memory is based on a molecular level. In several studies it was proved that we do not exactly understand how memories are encoded. The rising field of epigenetics sheds light on this process. Memories where proved to be inherited, but how are they transferred remains an open question. In a recent study mice where taught to fear the smell of acetophenone. The mice developed more neurons in their brains that produce a receptor protein known to detect the odour. Furthermore, the structures that obtain signals from the acetophenone-detecting neurons and send smell signals to other parts of the brain were also bigger. All these characteristics where found in the offspring of these mice. The cause is not yet determined, but epigenetic changes in the sperm cells and egg cells of the “fearful” mice are a likely cause. In a different study, genetically modified “fearful” mice where impregnated in vitro with “brave” mice embryos. The offspring was as “fearful” as the mother, despite not having the genetics of a “fearful” animal. This suggested the existence of another factor that influenced the mouse’s phenotype – possibly an epigenetic modification. Researchers are investigating in what way DNA and histone methylation and acetylation contribute to memory storage. The field of epigenetics may be entering its golden age.

 

SIV.E1 The role of monocular and binocular depth cues in perception of orientation in space

Lavinia Carmen Uscatescu

When people navigate environments and visually inspect objects, they are able to assess which of them are farther and which are closer. In other words, they perceive depth. Moreover, they experience a three dimensional (3D) percept, although the retinal projections of the inspected objects are only two dimensional (2D). Perceiving depth involves acquiring, organizing and using knowledge about objects, ourselves, and the environment. Three dimensional environments require estimating the orientation of objects on three axes: vertical/y, horizontal/x, and depth/z. The current research investigated the relation between orientation on different spatial axes, and binocular disparity, texture gradients and line parallelism were use as depth cues. The response bias was recorded in an orientation reproduction task on two separate axes independently: horizontal and vertical. Current data suggests conjoint processing of depth on both horizontal and vertical when monocular depth cues were employed.

 

SIV.E2 ERP correlates of visually induced illusion of self-motion during the oddball task

Marta Ratomska, Paweł Stróżak

The neural mechanisms underlying the illusion of self-motion (also known as vection) are not fully understood. Only few studies analyzed event-related potentials (ERP) when participants were exposed to vection-inducing stimulation. However, none of them tested how vection influences the performance of the ongoing task and whether this is mirrored in brain activity. In the present study, we tested how different combinations of central and peripheral visual vection-inducing fields influence the amplitude and latency of event-related potentials. ERP were recorded while subjects (N = 19) performed a standard/deviant discrimination oddball task. Central and peripheral visual fields consisted of altered black and white vertical stripes that were stationary or were moving horizontally. Three different combinations of these fields were created: (1) both center and periphery stationary, (2) center stationary with periphery moving, (3) both center and periphery moving. There were significant effects of these combinations on mean amplitudes of deviant-related P1, N2, and P3 components (measured during 120-160 ms, 170-200 ms, and 360-500 ms intervals, respectively). The amplitudes of P1 and N2 at occipital locations, and the amplitude of P3 at frontal, central, and parietal locations, were weakest with center and periphery moving. The latencies of P1 and N2 did not differ between conditions, but P3 exhibited longer latencies when central and peripheral visual fields were moving. Our findings suggest that the integration of central and peripheral moving visual fields disrupts the magnitude of electrophysiological responses to deviants in the oddball task.

 

SIV.E3 Close your eyes and read: The reading processes in the blind

Katarzyna Rączy

The way a human brain is organized remains one of the key issues in today’s neuroscience. Recently, many researchers have devoted a great deal of interest to the reading process, which is undoubtedly one of the most complex skills humans acquire. Reading, which is relatively a new process that couldn’t evolve in the biological sense, is thought to be represented in the specific part of the brain. Words can be seen, heard, or read by touch and retain their meaning regardless of their sensory characteristics. Therefore understanding the processes involved in reading can provide us with a better insight into the human brain organization. It is now known that in sighted individuals, the so-called Visual Word Form Area (VWFA) shows an increased activation in response to orthographical analysis of written words. However, the question about how does the reading occur in individuals who have been blind since birth remains largely unanswered. It has been suggested that when reading by touch (Braille), the brain in the congenitally blind people shows similar activation in the VWFA as it does when reading by sight in the sighted individuals <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21333539" target="_blank">(1)</a>. Therefore, it seems to suggest that the very area that is assumed to be just a “visual” part of the brain works in a similar fashion when reading, regardless of the modality (i.e. sighted vs Braille reading). The aim of the experiment is to test the congenitally blind adults on a novel learning paradigm, which involve tactile reading while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in order to establish corresponding parts of the brain while identifying specific Braille letters <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1634933/" target="_blank">(2</a>, <a href="http://neuro.org.ar/sites/neuro.org.ar/files/Vinckier%202007%20Neuron.pdf" target="_blank">3)</a>. The preliminary results obtained from the pilot experiment shows that the visual part of the brain is activated during reading by touch in the congenitally blind. This study provides a detailed insight into the brain processes involved in tactile reading by the congenitally blind individuals. The already obtained results call for an updated view on the visual word form area, which in fact seems not to be exclusively ‘visual’ as initially suggested.

 

SIV.E4 Numerical modeling the influence of electromagnetic fields on human brain activity

Beata Szuflitowska

The electromagnetic fields have a significant influence on human health and behaviour. Dielectric properties, i.e.: electrical permittivity and electrical conductivity of nervous tissues decrease with increasing age. Human bodies act as antennas that absorb electromagnetic radiation and convert it into alternating eddy currents. The most of medical imaging procedures, such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) use strong magnetic fields and radio waves to produce cross-sectional images of organs and internal structures in the body. Relatively safer, noncontact, electromagnetic technique is Magnetic Induction Tomography (MIT) that images the spatial distribution of the electrical conductivity inside inhomogenous media (e.g. cancerous and hemorrhage in human brain). Conductivity changes are one of the most significant and early diagnostic parameters. Cancer tissue has an essential higher electrical conductivity than healthy. The induced eddy currents are proportional to the conductivity distribution. Experimental MIT systems are developed also for detect fast variation of brain tissues conductivity related with information process in the brain. In the full version of the lecture three-dimensional simulations of the induced eddy currents in the cognitive brain regions will be presented. Besides inducing the eddy currents, radiofrequency radiation emitted by cell phones can cause “hots pots” inside the head. The specific absorption rate (SAR) use to determine the amount of radiation that human tissue absorbs. Numerical models will be analysed to study differences between the SAR in the heads of adults and children. The effects of these phenoma on cognitive processes, i.e.: perception, learning, working memory will be detailed considered during the conference.

 

EXPERIMENTAL POSTER SESSION - LIST OF POSTERS

NEUROBIOLOGY

EP1. Neuroleptics affect kisspeptin mRNA expression in the rat brain

Artur Pałasz

EP2. Emerging role of beta-synuclein and its’ mutants in Parkinson’s disease and dementia

with Lewy bodies

Maryna Psol

EP3. A systemic inflammation in rats fed a high-fat high- sugar diet

Kinga Gzieło-Jurek

EP4.  Effects of estradiol on ecto-5'-nucleotidase in the rat hippocampus

Milorad Dragic

EP5.  The role of actin polymerization in ethanol-induced amnesia

Agata Nowacka

EP6.  Effect of N2 and B27 supplements on the differentiation of neural stem cells

to neurons in vitro

Marta Trzeciak, Kalina Wiatr

EP7.  Characterization of ischaemic stroke in cat's visual cortex using Gabor atom density

Paulina Urban

 

EP8.  Region-specific adenosinergic modulation of the slow wave cortical rhythm

in urethane-anesthetized rats

Máté Pethő, Örs Szalontai, Attila Tóth

EP9.  Effects of the ultra-short light-dark conditions to the circadian and homeostatic regulation of slow wave activity in rats

Örs Szalontai, Attila Tóth

EP10.  Imaging of growth of rat experimental gliomas with fluorescence and bioluminescence

Martyna Lachowska

EP11.  Molecular basis of fear extinction

Magda Ziółkowska

EP12.  The role of αCaMKII autophosphorylation in fear memory extinction

Kamil Tomaszewski

EP13.  Theta gating cells in posterior hypothalamus: in vivo studies conducted on adult rats

Paulina Kłos-Wojtczak

EP14.  Induced by MK801 disruption of classical fear conditioning is associated with changes in electrical activity of the basolateral amygdala and nucleus accumbens

Karolina Rejniak

EP15. Neuronal circuits in the central amygda underlying emotional contagion

Karolina Rokosz

EP16.  Investigation of anticonvulsant effects of arctigenin in ex vivo epilepsy models

Kinga Moldovan

EP17.  Locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavior in rats on high fat diet

Karolina Karwowska

EP18.  Effects of contralateral pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus NMDA injection on VTA stimulation-induced feeding in rats after novelty test

Aleksandra Piwka

EP19.  Quantitative morphometric analysis of seizure-induced cortical microglia activation in adult rats injected with LPS on the 6th and 30th postnatal days

Emilia Kosonowska

 

EP20.  Virtual reality as an alternative method for diagnosing spatial memory

Natalia Pawlaczyk, Dawid Rutkowski, Magdalena Szmytke

EP21.  Rat brain clearing

Diana Legutko

EP22.  Various populations of microvesicles and their potential in the regeneration of neural tissue

Natalia Bryniarska, Andrzej Kubiak

EP23.  Alcohol sensitization induces molecular, morphological and functional changes in the central amygdala 

Anna Trąbczyńska

EP24.  Cognitive reserve in mouse model Tg2576 in Alzheimer Disease: recruitment of alternative brain areas to maintain an intact memory

Roberto Pagano

EP25.  Within-subject reproducibility of Eco-HAB measurement of social behavior 

Joanna Borowska

EP26.  Analysis of matrix metalloproteinase 9 activity in the brains of Fmr1 KO mice – a model of fragile X syndrome 

Joanna Podsiadłowska

EP27.  Are stressed mice able to display their natural social behavior? 

Maciej Winiarski

EP28.  Studying synaptic plasticity with 3D electron microscopy 

Malgorzata Borczyk

EP29.  Ants on coffee: how does caffeine affect the behaviour of workers of the red wood ant?

Paweł Jarosław Mazurkiewicz

EP30.  Development and optimization of whole-body clearing techniques

Paweł Matryba

 

COMPUTATIONAL NEUROSCIENCE

 

EP31.  Attempt to distinguish different visual pathways using SSVEP

Maria Nowicka

EP32.  Characterization of normal „UP” states and epileptic seizures and investigation of KAR functions in entorhinal cortex slices using multi electrode array system 

Katalin Major

EP33.  In the heart of creativity: divergent thinking and HRV in computerized Alternative Uses Task – an EEG-ECG pilot study 

Ewa Ratajczak

EP34.  Preliminary study on SSVEP-based BCI with stimuli generated on a typical computer screen

Anna Chabuda, Aleksiej Chrabrow, Piotr Różański, Magdalena Zieleniewska

EP35.  Study of electromagnetic field effect on FGF 2 – FGFR 2 complex by molecular dynamics simulations and the role of neurogenic growth factors in Autism

Joanna Estkowska

 

CLINICAL NEUROSCIENCE

 

EP36.  Evaluation of neuropathic pain component in the animal model of osteoarthritis

Jakub Mlost

EP37.  Neuropsychological assessment of cognitive and motor inhibitory control functions in deficit and non-deficit schizophrenia patients 

Ernest Tyburski

EP38.   Personality and styles of coping with stress in psychosomatic mechanism of Multiple Sclerosis 

Paulina Nowak

 

COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE

 

EP39.   Where is the link between Anorexic females and Asperger Syndrome males? 

Natalia Jermakov

 

EP40.  Dual-task executive functions and balance control training in 40-60 years old adults

Anna Chabuda, Justyna Wiśniowska

EP41.  Spatial-Numerical Association of Response Codes (SNARC) effect for mental

representations of fractions

Rafał Wróblewski

EP42.  Sensorimotor rhythms in motor imagery tasks of various complexity. Effects in experts

and amateurs

Marta Jaśkiewicz, Emilia Zabielska-Mendyk

EP43.  Does motivation modulate Rubber Hand Illusion experience? An experimental study 

Piotr Litwin

EP44.  Does Gender Matter for Resting-State Evaluation? 

Sigita Melynyte

EP45.  The effect of female sex hormones on the lateralization of executive attention – the results of a pilot study

Tomasz Borowski

EP46.  Influence of trait anxiety on conflict-related N2 amplitude in emotional and non-emotional flanker task

Mikołaj Szulczewski

EP47.  The cognitive training with the game “Kalkulilo” and mathematical abilities in children

– the preliminary results of a pilot study

Magdalena Kmiecik

EP48.  The computer game “Kalkulilo” as a cognitive training method for children

with developmental dyscalculia and its application value in the mathematical education

Julia Stępińska

EP49.  Application of eye-tracking technology in the study of phonemic hearing in infants

- a comparison of research methods

Agnieszka Ignaczewska

EP50.  Neuronal complexity and the temperament of attention

Jan Szczypiński, Jakub Wojciechowski

EP51.  Emotion comprehension and recognition in temporal lobe epilepsy

Oliwia Zaborowska

EP52.  An EEG study of isolated response probability effect on response preparation

Denisas Dankinas

EP53.  Is procrastination a result of impaired error-processing? Suggestions from Go/No-go study

Wojciech Koziejowski

EP54.  Effects of TMS inhibition of the right frontopolar cortex on directed exploration

Wojciech Zajkowski, Monika Dąbkowska

EP55.  Frontoparietal and default mode network functional connectivity changes during increased load of working memory task associated with behavioral performance

Kamil Bonna, Karolina Finc

EP56.  Global modularity changes during increased load of working memory task associated

with behavioral performance

Kamil Bonna, Karolina Finc

EP57.  Neuronal correlates of pain catastrophizing as identified by EEG source localization

method – a preliminary study on healthy subjects

Agnieszka Adamczyk

EP58.  The introduction to choice of brain - computer interface (BCI) language

Andrzej Chomentowski, Krzysztof Drygalski

EP59.  Controlled categorization processing in brand extension by Indo-European language speakers. An ERP study

Agnieszka Fudali-Czyż, Marta Ratomska, Andrzej Cudo

EP60.  Embodied visual awareness. Disambiguating perception by body posture: a predictive processing perspective

Paweł Motyka

 

 

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